Membangun Kebijakan Pertahanan Maritim Indonesia: Telaah Kritis Fungsi Keamanan Laut Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut

Widya Setiabudi Sumadinata

Abstract


Abstract

The development of security dynamics in the Southeast Asia region shows the existence of two significant threats which are traditional and non-traditional threats. In Indonesia, one of the threats to security is the great power rivalry between the United States and China. The great power rivalry between these two states has the potential to escalate into an open war which can happen in Indonesia and involve Indonesia. This threat potential means that the Indonesian Navy needs to have operational readiness in the event of a naval war and that development and deployment of a battle-ready navy is needed. This article argues that the Indonesian Navy and other stakeholders in formulating maritime defence policy are not yet able to optimally develop and deploy the Indonesian Navy’s power to be ready for naval warfare. This is caused by the Indonesian Navy’s weak autonomy in formulating the maritime defence policy and Indonesia’s strategic culture that tends to focus on non-traditional security threats. This causes the Indonesian Navy to tend to develop and be deployed in non-traditional security settings rather than be developed and deployed for naval battle.

Keywords: Defence policy; maritime security; Indonesian Navy; naval battle; non-traditional security

 

Abstrak

Perkembangan dinamika keamanan kawasan Asia Tenggara menunjukkan adanya dua ancaman besar yaitu ancaman keamanan tradisional dan ancaman keamanan non-tradisional. Salah satu ancaman keamanan tradisional yang mengancam Indonesia, khususnya pada sektor maritim, adalah great power rivalry yang terjadi antara AS dan Tiongkok. Great power rivalry yang terjadi antara dua negara tersebut berpotensi tereskalasi menjadi perang terbuka yang dapat terjadi di perairan Indonesia dan melibatkan Indonesia. Kemungkikan tersebut berarti TNI AL perlu memiliki kesiapan dalam menghadapi pertempuran laut sehingga pengembangan dan gelar kekuatan laut menjadi aspek penting dalam pembuatan kebijakan pertahanan maritim nasional. Artikel ini berargumen bahwa TNI AL dan stakeholder lainnya dalam formulasi kebijakan pertahanan maritim belum mampu melakukan pengembangan dan gelar kekuatan pertempuran laut dengan optimal. Hal ini disebabkan oleh lemahnya otonomi TNI AL dalam formulasi kebijakan pertahanan maritim dan budaya stratejik Indonesia yang cenderung mengedepankan isu keamanan non-tradisional sehingga TNI AL justru lebih banyak menjalankan fungsi keamanan internal dan non-tradisional dibandingkan mengembangkan kemampuan tempur

Kata Kunci: Kebijakan pertahanan; keamanan maritim; TNI AL; pertempuran laut; keamanan non-tradisional.


Keywords


Defence policy; maritime security; Indonesian Navy; naval battle; non-traditional security

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.37950/ijd.v4i2.259

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